political economic and oil painting cultural center of north and even the whole country. Especially in the qing dynasty
Beijing one thousand years has been the political economic and oil painting cultural center of north and even the whole country. Especially in the qing dynasty after the demise of the republic of China, a lot of dignitaries, letters, and jing in the painter of living groups, and formed the strong artistic atmosphere. At the same time, trading activity, resulting in the art market highly prosperous. The configuration of its market also is different from other parts of the same period, has its remarkable characteristics.
So, Beijing this period of calligraphy and painting market and its running mechanism is really about? The author attempts through to the producer of the art market, intermediaries and consumers of the relationship between each other, constitute the market circulation of each link and comprehensive factors, in order to let everybody to Beijing calligraphy and painting market have a whole understanding of the republic of China.
The supply of the market
Early years of the republic of China, Beijing as the capital, to participate in the group is the calligraphy and painting market. Old royal nobles, qing past young diehard, government officials, celebrities, and traditional collectors all actively involved in the market. The art market circulation principal chain suppliers, mainly in the Beijing area of home, they are the main sources of goods on the market. Beijing painter groups have their own characteristics, its structure is complex. The capital as the Ming and qing dynasties imperial city, a large number of artists, the Chinese court officials, looking for a job of traditional literati painters and folk professional painter. These artists created numerous works into the market circulation, make Beijing calligraphy and painting market anomaly enough goods.
In fact, is a man of noble birth artist to participate in the market and the mentality is different, the purpose of such as PuZuo, pu xue zhai, mandolin south, PuSongChuang, pu and moist, in the dark, Yu Shaosong, etc. They as qing dynasty royal noble descent, received a good education, traditional culture and calligraphy attainments also was very strong. In the early years of the republic of China, these lost salary for the nobles' children, while others had to make a living by painting and calligraphy. But they themselves have certain material base and social resources, although the sale, but can insist on personal art that is not for the art market.
Also some painters in the forms of government officials of the republic of China, the representative for the jincheng, Chen Shiceng, Zhou Zhaoxiang and xu light lam, etc. These people used their mastery of the various resources in calligraphy and painting activities, while also customize RunGe sell ink, but not to profit as the main purpose. The identity of the artist is just one of many oil painting reproductions social roles they play.
Of course, the market is given priority to with professional artists, such as yu, qi baishi, Chen Banding positions cloud, willow blue, Chen Shaomei, etc. They are in the republic of China painting and calligraphy at the bottom of market supply of artistic accomplishment but is quite high, in order to make a living, often works the be fond of according to the public, to cater to the market.
In addition to local artist living in Beijing, the southern region of the painter also poured into Beijing. Seventeen years (1928) of the republic of China in the autumn of chang from Shanghai to Beijing, via Chen Sanli introduction, know the pu heart she lived in the original respectful wang fu. From chang with pu heart she often talk about ShuLun painting, poetry fu, forged a deep friendship. Their paintings are on display in Beijing liulichang together many times, can find a very smooth, so there is the saying of "south Zhang Beipu". Twenty-four years (1935) of the republic of China, chang in Beijing sell paintings and met in the dark. In the dark very appreciated chang paintings, capital article in the newspaper, to chang the brush and paper praise, praise words had, in the art field caused quite a stir. Since chang in beiping art exhibition many times, custom oil painting gained great success. Thus it can be seen that chang group of fame to rival the painters of beiping and prosperity of the art market is inseparable.
Qi baishi and huang two people at the same time they inhabit beiping. Qi baishi in six years of the republic of China (1917) to avoid confusion of war drifted from hunan xiangtan to Beijing. Shelter on qi baishi was 53, ancient temples, liulichang nearby south paper shop sell paintings of engraving, to make a living way. Total strangers in the land, life is hard, "the pen knife, and more than but a night not sleeping, mixed feelings. Who makes the graveyard, parents wife separation, friends and relatives may not meet each other?" Due to learn the eight mountain man from cold style wrong people taste, the sale of work is not good. Later he met Chen Shiceng Chen Shiceng suggested his own style, improve the painting so as to adapt to the preference for painting, and qi baishi works to overseas. From then on, qi baishi successfully, and ICONS. Huang settled in Peiping is 26 years of the republic of China (1937), due to beiping then traces the employer identification of calligraphy and painting, and then at the invitation of the beiping art school as a review of research professor of traditional Chinese painting, Chinese painting seminar, so he custom oil portrait moved to Beijing. After beiping subjugate, huang troubled life, frequent meals. Huang was living in Peiping stone horse hutong, attached to fill the hurry of life, not only sold the beloved paintings, often to draw in meters. In addition to the southern painters, near Beijing city jing painting painter also came to the capital city. Such as to sell the painting for a living in tianjin painter Liu Kuiling was once taken Liu Jiyou to Peiping, and meet with chang and Zhang Shanma, also for Wei Enjia the guanshan travelled figure fan "" Peking Opera fan" four hirayama diagram and so on.
In addition to the sale way to market the painter painting outside, from the enormous outflow palace painting and calligraphy is also one of source of market of the collection. In the court at that time, up to the emperor the eunuch, and the royal collection of ancient calligraphy and painting to make a fortune. They are stealing the palace paintings sold, so that liu lichang palace collection trading unusually busy. At the same time produce ethos of fraud, especially in the area of the gates, formed a special counterfeit fraud workshop in the palace painting and calligraphy to earn profits, commonly known as the back door.
Peiping a great number of old official lost salary for this period, become the survivals of bygone ages. To overthrow qing dynasty, the manchu nobility and gentry officials, the eight banners children lost their lives by economic pillar, but still idle, raffish. These people have a hobby of collecting antiques, in order to continue to maintain the life of luxury, and began to sell the home in the collection of the generation of antique calligraphy and painting, become a supplier of the market. That circulate on the market with a large number of aristocratic collection of precious calligraphy and painting. And each has died or whose home by seller, shall be for books, calligraphy and painting also. "City jia one hundred party hard again, not to sell, sell not. Has kept since the early today, also exhaust. Such as the prince of yi walls, after being jue, its sale of painting and calligraphy thirty years beginning." This kind of phenomenon is common at the time, the home of some of the noble elegant breeding has been living, growing was down and out. Sun Pu heart as (she is the mother mourning had no money, was forced to the ancestral home of luji "remove post" sold to the famous collector zhang boju.
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